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昆体良  

2010-11-10 13:53:27|  分类: 银河流域 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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昆体良

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  昆体良 - zyltsz196947 - zyltsz196947的博客
昆体良教育论著选

昆体良是古代罗马著名的教育家。他是教育史上大大发展完善教育方法和思想的先驱。他主张对儿童的教育应是鼓励的,能激发他们兴趣的。

目录

人物简介
主要著作
教育思想
  1. 简述
  2. 第一阶段:家庭教育
  3. 第二阶段:初级学校
INTRODUCTION—— LIFE OF QUINTILIAN
His Life
His Ideals
History
Content
人物简介
主要著作
教育思想
  1. 简述
  2. 第一阶段:家庭教育
  3. 第二阶段:初级学校
INTRODUCTION—— LIFE OF QUINTILIAN
His Life
His Ideals
History
Content
展开

 
人物简介

  
  昆体良 - zyltsz196947 - zyltsz196947的博客

昆体良(MarcusFabiusQuintilianus,约35—约95年)古罗马时期的著名律师、教育家和皇室委任的第一个修辞学教授 ,也是公元1世纪罗马最有成就的教育家。他出生在西班牙,其父在罗马教授雄辩术,颇有名声。昆体良少年时随父亲到罗马求学,受过雄辩术教育。他当过lo年律师。公元70年被任命为一所国立拉丁语修辞学校的主持人。由于在雄辩术方面的造诣以及在办学上的卓越成就,当罗马帝国在公元78年设立由国家支付薪金的雄辩术讲座时,他成了该讲座的第一位教师。昆体良在拉丁语修辞学校工作了二十年左右,大约在公元90年左右退休。
  在担任教师的同时,昆体良还兼任律师,这使他有可能以当律师的丰富实践经验充实教学内容,把理论与实践紧密地结合起来。
  他与西塞罗一样,认为一个理想的演说家,首先必须是一个良善的人,道德的生活比华丽的辞藻更重要得多。他对于教育事业怀有很大的信心,认为教育者应当看到儿童具有无限的潜在能力和发展的可能性,天赋的素质在学习上固然是重要的,但不能因此抱怨只有少数人有能力可以接受教育,而多数人是迟钝的;相反,大多数人是敏于理解和乐意学习的,那些呆笨的人如同不正常的事物一样,是非常少的。他竭力主张并多方论证了公共教育比私人教育优越的观点。他要求未来的演说家必须生活在最公开的和阳光普照的公共生活之中,要善于与社会交往,从而经常受到新的刺激和鼓舞。在学习上,他认为作为一个演说家,必须有广博的、稳固的知识基础。他特别强调文学教学(包括学习历史家、科学家和诗人的著作)的重要性,他说:“除非很好地、真正地打好基础,否则,上层建筑就会倒塌。”

 
主要著作

  昆体良退休后,专门从事著述。经过两年多的努力,写成了《雄辩术原理》(12卷,约合中文六十五万字)。这部著作既是他自己约二十年教育教学工作经验的总结,又是古代希腊、罗马教育经验的集大成者。昆体良的教育理论和实践都以培养雄辩家为宗旨。
  《演说术原理》约成于公元96年,后失落。文艺复兴时期,久已失传的昆体良的著作从积尘中被重新发现(1416年重新发现《演说术原理》),立即光彩夺目,使人文主义者为之倾倒。
  《演说术原理》一书是古代西方第一部系统的教学方法论著,不仅反映了公元前后二百年间罗马学校教育的实际,而且系统地阐述了关于培养演说家的教育思想。

 
教育思想

简述

  昆体良看到并提出了过去一直被忽视的教师在教学过程中的重大作用问题。他对儿童心理特点和教学方法进行了研究,认为教师必须以父母般的态度对待儿童,并彻底了解儿童能力的差异和倾向;惩罚、鞭打,乃至嘲讽,只能使幼小的。心灵受到创伤。昆体良坚决反对体罚,认为这是对儿童的凌辱。他认为,用体罚的方法来驱使学生学习,不但不能调动学生学习的积极性和自觉性,相反却会使学生产生厌学的情绪。 
  昆体良对儿童的天赋才能有很高评价,这是他教育理论体系中的精华。他肯定儿童
  昆体良 - zyltsz196947 - zyltsz196947的博客

发展的可能性。指出儿童一般都生而具有智力活动与理解能力,愚纯和低能只是一种反常现象,是稀有的。他把小学教育看作全部教育的基础。他不赞成罗马7岁入学的传统习惯,主张儿童应提早入学,但学习不能负担过重,教学中应多渗入游戏的成份。他相信游戏可以增强儿童智慧,培养儿童的道德品格,不过不能让儿童游戏过度。主张学校课程不宜单科独进,而应该多科并进,对学生的精神是一种调剂,可以减轻疲劳,提高学习质量。他认为课程门类多,不致造成学生负担过重,因为青年的接受性强,接受量大,而且在学校学习的时间长。
  昆体良认为,教学质量的关键在于教师。他对教师提出了很高的要求。认为教师应该是有学识的,他们应该热爱儿童,耐心地教育儿童,注意研究儿童,讲究因材施教。他提出一个极有意义的愿望,要求高等学校的教师抽出一些时间到初等学校去授课,以便研究儿童、研究教育儿童的方法。他强烈反对当时流行于罗马学校中的体罚,认为学生不学好,那是教育的过错,应该用竞赛、奖励、教师的关怀爱护和学科本身所引起的兴趣去保证学童学习好。教师的鼓励和榜样是使学生学习成功的有效方法。
  昆体良重视学生记忆能力的培养。他认为,“对于一个雄辩家来说,记忆力是头等重要的,它可以通过练习来得到加强和发展”。 在儿童年龄很小时,就要让他背诵许多优美的诗文,虽然他们还不能理解,但到了儿童能够理解时就会对他们大有稗益。在学校中,教师要有意识地培养和锻炼儿童的记忆力,使其得到不断地强化和充实。在昆体良看来,对于雄辩家的培养要"从咿呀学语开始,经过初露头角的雄辩家所必需的各个阶段的教育,一直到雄辩术的顶峰。"

第一阶段:家庭教育

  昆体良非常重视幼儿教育。他认为,幼儿教育可以在德行和知识方面为雄辩家的培养打下初步的基础。幼儿教育是在家庭里进行的,父母、保姆、家庭教师都是幼儿的教育者。尤其强调保姆必须是一个具有良好的品德和说话准确的人,因为她们的一言一行都会影响幼儿。

第二阶段:初级学校

  昆体良反对古代罗马贵族聘请家庭教师的传统做法,主张应尽早让儿童接受学校教育。在他看来,家庭教育容易使孩子 养成冷淡、自夸和羞怯的习性,而学校教育则不同。学校里学生
  昆体良 - zyltsz196947 - zyltsz196947的博客

集中,不但有结交朋友的环境,而且也有竞争的、互相观摩学习的机会,因此,从学样培养出来的学生一般都能很快地胜任雄辩家的角色,在公众面前发表演讲。昆体良认为,在初级学校中,儿童主要学习阅读和书写。昆体良在总结自己长期的教学工作经验基础上,对教学原则和方法等问题提出了自己独到的见解。
  昆体良倡导因材施教。他深信,每一个儿童都具有才能上的个别差异。在教学过程中,教师要"善于精细地观察学生能力的差异,弄清每个学生的天性的特殊倾向";教师在识辨了学生的能力和个性以后,就必须因材施教。他主张按照每一个学生的具体情况安排课程。对于智力较弱的学生,在教学的进度和内容方面可以适当迁就一些;但对于天赋素质丰饶的学生则要尽力培养,便之成为真正的雄辩家。另外还提出,"对不同年龄的学生,纠正错误要用不同的方法。作业的分量和改正错误的标准应适合学生的智力水平。" 昆体良奠定了教学中量力性原则的思想基础。他认为,教学中既要避免对学生提出过高要求,又不可让学生放弃力所能及的尝试。他曾再三告诫教师,要防止学生的课业负担过重,教学的方式方法要为学生所接受,不要装腔作势,故弄玄虚。

INTRODUCTION—— LIFE OF QUINTILIAN

  MARCUS FABIUS QUINTILIANUS was, like Seneca, of Spanish origin, being born about 35 A.D. at Calagurris. His father was a rhetorician of some note who practiced with success at Rome. It is not surprising therefore to find that the young Quintilian was sent to Rome for his education. Among his teachers were the famous grammaticus Remmius Palaemon, and the no less distinguished rhetorician Domitius Afer. On completing his education he seems to have returned to his native land to teach rhetoric there, for we next hear of him as being brought to Rome in 68 A.D. by Galba, then governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. At Rome he met with great success as a teacher and was the first rhetorician to set up a genuine public school and to receive a salary from the State. He continued to teach for twenty years and had among his pupils the younger Pliny and the two sons of Domitilla, the sister of Domitian. He was also a successful pleader in the courts as we gather from more than one passage in his works. Late in life he married and had two sons. But both wife and children predeceased him. He died full of honour, the possessor of wide lands and consular rank. The date of his death is unknown, but it was before 100 A.D. He left behind him a treatise “On the causes of the decadence of Roman oratory ” (De causis corruptae eloquentiae), the present work, and a speech in defence of a certain Naevius Arpinianus, who was accused of murdering his wife. These are the only works known to have been actually published by him, though others of his speeches had been taken down in shorthand and circulated against his will, while an excess of zeal on the part of his pupils resulted in the unauthorized publication of two series of lecture notes. The present work alone survives. The declamations which have come down to us under his name are spurious. Of his character the Institution Oratorio gives us the pleasantest impression. Humane, kindly and of a deeply affectionate nature, gifted with a robust common sense and sound literary judgment, he may well have been the ideal schoolmaster. The fulsome references to Domitian are the only blemishes which mar this otherwise pleasing impression. And even here we must remember his great debt to the Flavian house and the genuine difficulty for a man in his position of avoiding the official style in speaking of the emperor. As a stylist, though he is often difficult owing to compression and the epigrammatic turn which he gives his phrases, he is never affected or extravagant. He is still under the influence of the sound traditions of the Ciceronian age, and his Latin is silver-gilt rather than silver. His Institutio Oratoria, despite the fact that much of it is highly technical, has still much that is of interest to-day, even for those who care little for the history of rhetoric. Notably in the first book his precepts as regards education have lasting value: they may not be strikingly original, but they are sound, humane and admirably put. In the more teclmical portions of his work he is unequal; the reader feels that he cares but little about the minute pedantries of rhetorical technique, and that he lacks method in his presentation of the varying views held by his predecessors. But once he is free of such minor details and touches on themes of real practical interest, he is a changed man. He is at times really eloquent, and always vigorous and sound, while throughout the whole work he keeps the same high ideal unswervingly before him.
  arcus Fabius Quintilian was born in Calagurris, Spain in 35 A.D. with a roman rhetorician as a father. He was therefore sent to Rome where he was educated in rhetoric. After his education was complete, he returned to Spain and became a rhetorician of worthy note there. He later returned to Rome and began to teach. He published three works, of which only his Institutio Oratoria survived.

 
His Life

  Quintilian was born in Calagurris, Spain in 35 A.D. to a roman rhetorician. His father took him to Rome to be educated in the art of rhetoric. While in Rome, Quintilian was educated by such rhetoricians as Remmius Palaemon, Domitius and Afer. After his education was complete, he returned to Spain to begin practice as a rhetorician. In 68 A.D. he was brought back to Rome and began to teach there. He became the first rhetorician to set up a truly public school, and to receive a state salary. He was also the only rhetorician to receive an imperial grant. As a teacher of rhetoric, Quintilian taught several people that were of some importance. These included the younger Pliney, the two sons of Domitilla, and the sister of Domitian. Quintilian taught rhetoric for twenty years before he retired at age 50. After finished with teaching, he was asked by several of his friends, mainly Trypho, to publish a book on rhetorical pedagogy. The book he wrote was Institutio Oritoria, and is the only work of his to survive to this day. He published only two other works, on being a speech in defense of a suspected murderer, and the other a treatise entitled "On the decadence of roman oratory."

 
His Ideals

  Quintilian lived in the time period following Cicero, and was therefore influenced by him. Many of Quintilian's ideals on rhetoric and rhetorical pedagogy are parallel to those of Cicero. These parallels were so close, that Quintilian was often called an imitator of Cicero. Cicero was also influenced by Isocrates, and therefore had ideals parallel to those of him, as did Quintilian. Quintilian believed that there was a level which a rhetorician could reach that he felt was perfect. He developed five main objectives that this rhetorician would have to follow to reach and maintain this level. These included protecting the innocent, defending the truth, deterring crime and criminal activities, inspiring the military, and in general, inspire the public. These ideals were what Quintilian felt every rhetorician should strive for to be a true rhetorician, a "good man skilled at speaking." Quintilian felt that teaching rhetoric had several steps that had to be followed in order. Included in these steps, is the progression from one form of communication to two. These methods are described in full detail in Quintilian's Intitutio de Oratoria.
  Institutio Oratoria

 
History

  The Institutio Oratoria is Quintilian's only surviving work. It is a collection of twelve books written on the education of rhetoricians from childhood to death. The work has a rich history both of its influence on others, and others' influence on it. After it was published by Quintilian, it circulated sparingly, with little interest. Its influence finally disappeared around 800 A.D. It then reappears in the twelfth century, and becomes a strong influence in the middle ages before disappearing again in the mid 1100's. Its influence on the education of this period was so strong, that it has been associated to the end of the medieval period. During this time the work was in several incomplete versions, resulting from changes made by many people over the span of centuries. The resulting versions discouraged people from reading the work, and gave Quintilian a marred reputation. During the Medieval period, the forms of Quintilian's work that were available were the textus mutilatus (the text with big gaps), excerpts in florigalia (choice excerpts), Pseudo-Quintilian declamations, and rarely a complete text. In 1416, the complete text was re-discovered by Poggio at the St. Gall monastery. When he found the text, he quickly copied it, and brought it home with him. About forty copies of his original copies are still extant. The work became a strong influence again, and the demand for the work also grew strong. Between 1470 and 1539 forty-three versions were produced.

 
Content

  The Institutio Oritoria was written on how a rhetorician should be educated. The first two books are devoted to discussing how children are started on the subject. Book three discusses the origin of the art, and its different branches, as well as the stasis theory. Book four describes the different parts of a speech, and book five discusses proofs and enthymemes. Book six studies the emotions involved with rhetoric, and book seven deals with arrangement. Books eight and nine concentrate on the various uses of style, and book ten describes reading and writing. Book eleven is written on memory and delivery, while the last book gives Quintilian's views on what a perfect rhetorician is, and what happens when a rhetorician retires.
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